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# Relative uncertainty

The relative uncertainty or error is used to calculate the uncertainty of a measurement compared to the size of the measurement. The importance of relative uncertainty is that it puts error in measurements into perspective. Formula to calculate relative uncertainty Standard Uncertainty and Relative Standard Uncertainty Definitions The standard uncertainty u(y) of a measurement result y is the estimated standard deviation of y.. The relative standard uncertainty u r (y) of a measurement result y is defined by u r (y) = u(y)/|y|, where y is not equal to 0.. Meaning of uncertainty If the probability distribution characterized by the measurement result y and. Processing....

### How to Calculate Relative Uncertainty

Relative uncertainty is the measurement uncertainty relative to the magnitude of a particular single choice for the value for the measured quantity, when this choice is nonzero. This particular single choice is usually called the measured value, which may be optimal in some well-defined sense (e.g., a mean, median, or mode) Absolute uncertainty: uncertainty that is a number (ie, +/- 0.3m)Relative uncertainty (AKA Percent % Uncertainty): uncertainty that is expressed as a percent.. If you're multiplying or dividing, you add the relative uncertainties. If you're multiplying by a constant factor, you multiply absolute uncertainties by the same factor, or do nothing to relative uncertainties. If you're taking the power of a number with an uncertainty, you multiply the relative uncertainty by the number in the power 1) Calculate the relative uncertainty in your measurements of each hand. 2) Imagine you are given a machine that measures hands with relative uncertainty 5%. Calculate the absolute uncertainties of L1 and L2 (using your actual data). HINT: First convert 5% to a pure decimal and then do a little algebra to the formula above 2. Determining random errors. 3. What is the range of possible values? 4. Relative and Absolute Errors 5. Propagation of Errors, Basic Rules. Suppose two measured quantities x and y have uncertainties, Dx and Dy, determined by procedures described in previous sections: we would report (x ± Dx), and (y ± Dy).From the measured quantities a new quantity, z, is calculated from x and y

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 2.1 Uncertainty in Measurement. Ruler A has an uncertainty of ±0.1 cm, and Ruler B has an uncertainty of ± 0.05 cm. Thus, (a) Ruler A can give the measurements 2.0 cm and 2.5 cm. (b) Ruler B can give the measurements 3.35 cm and 3.50 cm. Solution. Which measurements are consistent with the metric rulers shown in Figure 2.2 What is relative uncertainty? Extending the above the relative uncertainty is the ratio of the uncertainty (absolute) to the result reported. In this context the above example would have a relative uncertainty of 1/10 or o.1. The relative uncertainty in this form is unitless as it is derived from a ratio Relative Uncertainty •How to calculate from standard form: Measurement ± Absolute Uncertainty •Example 1: What is the relative uncertainty of one night stand with a length of 73.2 cm if you are using a ruler that measures mm? ~0.00007 Step 1 : Find Absolute Uncertainty ½ * 1mm = 0.5 mm= absolute uncertainty Using tolerance values from Table 4.2.1, the relative uncertainty for case (a) is and for case (b) the relative uncertainty is Since the relative uncertainty for case (b) is less than that for case (a), the two-step dilution provides the smallest overall uncertainty

uncertainty of the result is ntimes the relative uncertainty of the original number. relative uncertainty ofxn = n relative uncertainty of x If you are taking a square-root, you are raising to the one-half power, the relative uncertainty is one half of the number you are taking the square root of. relative uncertainty of p x= relative. Relative uncertainties are widely used to express the reliability of measurements, even those for a single observation, in which case the uncertainty is that of the measuring device. Relative uncertainties can be expressed as parts per hundred (percent), per thousand (PPT), per million, (PPM), and so on Relative Uncertainty (Relative Error) Relative uncertainty is the ratio of the absolute uncertainty of a measurement to the best estimate. It expresses the relative size of the uncertainty of a measurement (its precision). Symbolically, if is the absolute uncertainty in a measurement x, then the relative uncertainty in x, s x, is Although the combined standard uncertainty u c is used to express the uncertainty of many measurement results, for some commercial, industrial, and regulatory applications (e.g., when health and safety are concerned), what is often required is a measure of uncertainty that defines an interval about the measurement result y within which the value of the measurand Y can be confidently asserted to lie The Relative Uncertainty calculator compute the relative uncertainty based on the absolute uncertainty and the magnitude of measurement.. INSTRUCTION: Enter the following: (AU) This is absolute uncertainty which is uncertainty associated with the reading of the instrument. (MM) This is the magnitude of measurement, which is the full measurement recorded in any units of volume or mass

The relative error is the absolute error divided by the magnitude of the exact value. The percent error is the relative error expressed in terms of per 100. An error bound is an upper limit on the relative or absolute size of an approximation error On the subject of relative uncertainty of position between any two points positioned by a survey, consider this example. Point 1 is the station where the project was connected to NAD83(2011)Epoch 2010.0 via OPUS

### Standard Uncertainty and Relative Standard Uncertaint

1. Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels
2. To increase an uncertain measurement exponentially, simply raise the measurement to the designated power, and then multiply the relative uncertainty by that power: (2.0 cm ± 1.0 cm) 3 = (2.0 cm) 3 ± (50%) x 3 = 8.0 cm 3 ± 150 % or 8.0 cm 3 ±12 cm
3. For more studying material, go to https://www.dennisusa.com/analytical-chemistr

Uncertainty (u) = √ (∑ (x i - μ) 2) / (n * (n-1)) Relevance and Uses of Uncertainty Formula. From the perspective statistical experiments, the concept of uncertainty is very important because it helps a statistician to determine the variability in the readings and estimate the measurement with a certain level of confidence When multiplying or dividing measurements we use their relative uncertainties for a propagation of uncertainty. For example, if the result is given by the equation (4.3.8) R = A × B C then the relative uncertainty in R i

### Relative Uncertainty - vCal

• While I do understand that relative uncertainty can be found via the equation ##\frac{\sigma_A}{A}##, I do not understand how I can find the relative uncertainty of SEM. Does anybody here have any ideas? Please refer to the table below for the data
• The relative uncertainty of a measurement roughly corresponds to the number of significant figures reported, and measurements with the same number of significant figures differ in precision depending on the value of the leftmost digit
• Conclusion. Linearity uncertainty is an important source of uncertainty that you may want to include in your uncertainty analyses. If you are using prediction equations for your CMC Uncertainty and your measurement function spans across a range of values, you might want to add linearity to your uncertainty budgets to account for the non-linearity in your measurement function
• The two distributions have the same standard deviation, but the first distribution is clearly more uncertain in a relative sense. It is uncertainty in this relative sense that is relevant for decision making. 2. The model Let U(x, y) be a utility function that satisfies the von Neuman-Morgenstern axioms. The variable x is a choice variable
• relative uncertainty precision x fractional uncertainty best = x = = σ To avoid confusion with fractional uncertainty, the uncertainty is sometimes called the absolute uncertainty. The fractional uncertainty (precision) of a measurement is often expressed a percentage. Ex. x = 47 ± 2 cm σx = 2 cm xbest = 47 cm 0.043 or 4.3% 47 2 = = best x x �
• Relative variation refers to the spread of a sample or a population as a proportion of the mean. Relative variation is useful because it can be expressed as a percentage, and is independent of the units in which the sample or population data are measured. For example, you can use a measure of relative variation [

### Measurement uncertainty - Wikipedi

Relative uncertainty = Absolute uncertainty x 100 Value of measurement ex.: using 5.9cm ± 0.5cm ← absolute uncertainty ↑ Value of Measurement 2 ways of determining the uncertainty of a measurement: •The uncertainty is written on the instrument itself ex.: On a balance, it may say that the mass indicated has an uncertainty of 0.01 Rember by relative uncertainity is relative to the value, so it increses and decreases, as it is a %. Absolute is absolute so it never changes, as it is a certain numbe but i have seen something in ibid book wich says that relative uncertainty *100=PERCENTAGE UNCERTAINTY The fractional uncertainty is 0.010, and the percentage uncertainty is 1.0 percent. Good. Compute the uncertainty in YOUR measurements . Okay, now let's put these statistics to work. You made some measurements of the time required for a mass hanging from a spring to oscillate 20 times 4. Calculating the Uncertainty of a Numerical Result When you add or subtract data, the uncertainty in the result is the sum of the individual uncertainties. Convert this sum to a percentage. Example 1: Mass of crucible + product: 74.10 g +/- 0.01 g Mass of empty crucible: - 72.35 g +/- 0.01 uncertainty estimated using the actual instrument and are not guaranteed values. 1. Uncertainty due to the weight used for calibration Extended uncertainty (coverage factor k=2) for the calibration weights to be used are listed in the chart below. Nominal value Extended uncertainty (k=2) 1 g 0.018 mg 50 g 0.101 mg 100 g 0.15 mg 200 g 0.25 m

In statistics, propagation of uncertainty (or propagation of error) is the effect of variables' uncertainties (or errors, more specifically random errors) on the uncertainty of a function based on them. When the variables are the values of experimental measurements they have uncertainties due to measurement limitations (e.g., instrument precision) which propagate due to the combination of. Relative Uncertainty: This is the simple ratio of uncertainty to the value reported. As a ratio of similar quantities, the relative uncertainty has no units. In fact there is no special symbol or notation for the relative uncertainty, so you must make it quite clear when you are reporting relative uncertainty.2.95 kg ± 0.043 (relative uncertainty

### Converting Absolute to Relative (%) Uncertainty - YouTub

To find Relative Uncertainty, divide the Abs Uncertainty by the Mean Measured Value To find Percentage Uncertainty, multiply Relative Uncertainty by 100. For example, let's say I took 5 measurements of the temperature of a cup of water. The measurements are: 49.8, 49,9, 50, 50.1, 50.2 degrees Celsius The magnitude of uncertainty for derived relative humidity increases with decreasing dewpoint temperature depression. It also changes with ambient temperature, especially when ambient relative humidity is high, which in reality is a common condition. We recommend that one should use, when possible, the actual direct measurements for air. The relative uncertainty in a product or quotient is the square root of the sum of the squares of the relative uncertainty of each individual term, as long as the terms are not correlated. Example: Find uncertainty in v, wher The CV of base solution (12/50) for your equation in calculating Uncertainty(acid) does not tally with the given uncertainty of the base solution (+/- 2ml). If it is +/-2 ml, your final calculation should be 0.092 and not 0.01. Also, this Uncertainty(acid) should be a relative uncertainty in the form of U/2.5

### How to Calculate Uncertainty Sciencin

1. uncertainty. (2) Now the best estimate (usually the average value) and its uncertainty (experimental error) must always have the same number of digits after the decimal point, even if the uncertainty does not contain the same number of significant figures as the best estimate
2. At low input rates, the relative uncertainty is proportional to the inverse square root of the number of counts. Clear deviations from this trend occur at high count rates exceeding ρτ = 0.1. A singularity occurs at ρτ = 1, which is merely a technical consequence of taking the inverse of the derivative at one point: the maximum of the.
3. Often, fractional or relative uncertainty is used to quantitatively express the precision of a measurement. ( 3 ) percent uncertainty = error: E: × 100%. The percent uncertainty in this case would be ( 4 ) percent uncertainty = 0.04: 10.2: × 100% = 0.39%. Comparing two experimental value
4. percentage uncertainty in volume = 3 * (percentage uncertainty in L) = 3 * 3.1% = 9.3% When the power is not an integer, you must use this technique of multiplying the percentage uncertainty in a quantity by the power to which it is raised
5. Uncertainty is a close relative of anxiety. Uncertainty is not knowing what is going to happen, said Mazen Kheirbek, PhD, an associate professor in UC San Francisco's Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. Combine uncertainty with threat and you get anxiety
6. When you have uncertainty over a range of different values, taking the average (arithmetic mean) can serve as a reasonable estimate. This is easy to do in Excel with the AVERAGE function. We can use the following formula on the sample data above. =AVERAGE(B2:B6) Standard Deviation of the Values
7. Relative uncertainty (RU) Relative uncertainty is a fractional value. If you measure a pencil to be 10cm ± 1cm, then the relative uncertainty is one tenth of its length (RU = 0.1 or 10%). RU is simply absolute uncertainty divided by the measured value. It is reported as a fraction (or percent): For the example given under AU: meas = (23.27.

If uncertainty is specified as a percent, I believe that means it is a relative uncertainty. Assuming the coverage factor is one, the relative standard uncertainty is the percentage given. When uncertainty is specified in dB and is converted back to a percentage, the interval is no longer symmetric The Uncertainty Machine evaluates measurement uncertainty by application of two different methods: The method described in the GUM and in NIST Technical Note 1297; The Monte Carlo method specified in the Supplement 1 to the GUM. The uncertainty machine is accessible at https://uncertainty.nist.gov

Uncertainty. Uncertainty of a measured value is an interval around that value such that any repetition of the measurement will produce a new result that lies within this interval. This uncertainty interval is assigned by the experimenter following established principles of uncertainty estimation Absolute and Relative Uncertainty Absolute uncertainty is the actual size of the uncertainty in the units used to measure it. This is the size of the uncertainty relative to the value measured, and is usually expressed as a percentage This is what the previous slide referred to In our ruler example, the absolute uncertainty is +/- 0.05 cm. quantifying uncertainty contents quam:2012.p1 page ii 9. reporting uncertainty 30 9.1. general 30 9.2. information required 30 9.3. reporting standard uncertainty 30 9.4. reporting expanded uncertainty 30 9.5. numerical expression of results 31 9.6. asymmetric intervals 31 9.7. compliance against limits 31 appendix a. examples 3 Homework Statement An object of mass m = 2.3 ± 0.1 kg is moving at a speed of v = 1.25 ± 0.03 m/s. Calculate the kinetic energy (K =(1/2)mv 2) of the object.What is the uncertainty Replace <range> with the cell range you want to pull data from. Enter the first and the last cells in the parentheses, and separate the two cell numbers with a semicolon. For example, if your data is in cells B5 to B11, your formula should look like =STDEV.S(B5:B11).; Alternatively, you can pull data from nonsequential cells, and separate each cell number with a comma

1. Different sources are giving me different formulae for combining relative uncertainties. One tells me to simply add the relative uncertainties together to get the combined uncertainty while another gives me this formula. $\sqrt{(\delta x/x)^2+ (\delta y/y)^2}$. Which is the correct method
2. Imagine you are estimating uncertainty for the calibration of a Multimeter measuring 10 VDC. After combining your uncertainty sources, your calculated combined uncertainty is 0.0010 VDC. Now, you want to expand your uncertainty to meet a 95.45% confidence where k=2. Just multiply the combined uncertainty by the coverage factor. Coverage Factor
3. Furthermore, you should compare the relative uncertainty of the result with the relative uncertainty of the input data. Usually, the relative uncertainty of the result is greater than or equal to the relative uncertainty of the input data. In this case: \frac{u(m)}{m}=\frac{0.0004\ \mathrm g}{0.0933\ \mathrm g}=0.0042872\approx0.43\ \%$4. The uncertainty components that were quantified in the previous lecture are now combined into the combined standard uncertainty (u c) - standard uncertainty that takes into account contributions from all important uncertainty sources by combining the respective uncertainty components.The concept of indirect measurement - whereby the value of the output quantity (measurement result) is. In other words, when taking products, it is the relative uncertainty z=z which is the Euclidean length of the relative uncertainty vector ( x=x; y=y). Example 8 (Atwood machine). The acceleration of two masses m 1 and m 2 in an Atwood machine is given by the formula a= g m 1 m 2 m 1 + m 2; (29) where g= 9:81m=s2 is the constant of gravity. uncertainty is indicated by the relative uncertainty (also called the fractional uncertainty), which is simply the uncertainty divided by the value for each variable. Here, the relative uncertainties are 0.05 gal 4.35% 1.15 gal u V V, 0.1 s 0.303% 33.0 s ut t , and 0.09113 gpm 4.35% 2.091 gpm R u u R V V Absolute, fractional, percentage uncertainty Learn the difference between absolute, fractional and percentage uncertainty as well as a few tricks for exams on Paper 3 When you're done with the video, answer a related question Relative Uncertainty (Volume)? George must measure out 1 liter of water but only has a Class A 100 mL pipet certified to deliver 100.0 +/- 0.10 mL. What is the relative uncertainty of the final solution It is defended that a general framework for measuring uncertainty should be built around the notion of relative uncertainty, that is, when the uncertainty content of some situation is related to the information content of the universal set on which the situation is defined The relative uncertainty is 50/1400 = 0.036. It is usual to state this as a decimal : +/- 3.6%. If if had been written as 1400.0 we would assume it had been rounded to the nearest tenth of a unit. Then before rounding it could have been as little as 1399.95 or as much as 1400.05. The relative uncertainty is now 0.05 / 1400 = 0.000036 or +/- 0. The relative uncertainty of anthropogenic climate forcing has decreased in the past decade. A statistical model suggests that by 2030 this uncertainty will be halved, as CO2 increasingly dominates. Find the absolute and percent relative uncertainty and express each answer with a reasonable number of significant figures. A) 9.41 (±0.01) + 4.49 (±0.02) − 3.26 (±0.06) = ? absolute uncertainty & percent uncertainty The relative uncertainty in a product or a quotient will be the square root of the sum of the squares of the relative errors in the individual factors. Translated to mathematics, this is saying that (4) These are expressions for relative errors. To get the absolute uncertainty, multiply both sides by the appropriate denominator absolute uncertainty you cannot tell which of the measurements is more accurate because the units of the measured quantities are different. In order to resolve this issue, determine the relative uncertainty which is the ratio of the absolute uncertainty and the average: Relative Uncertainty = dX/X Express as a percentage by multiplying by 100 ### Uncertainties and Error Propagatio 1. The uncertainty is 50% of the measured time so, in reality, the measurement is useless. We will define the quantity relative uncertainty as follows: and to emphasize the difference, we use the term absolute uncertainty where we simply said uncertainty 2. The following formula is used to calculate an absolute uncertainty. A = R /100 * MV. Where A is the absolute uncertainty ; R is the relative uncertainty ; MV is the measured value; Absolute Uncertainty Definition. An absolute uncertainty is defined as the total uncertainty of a set of data based on the relative uncertainty and a measured value 3. Relative Standard Deviation. In probability theory and statistics, the relative standard deviation (RSD or %RSD) is the absolute value of the coefficient of variation. It is often expressed as a percentage. It is useful for comparing the uncertainty between different measurements of varying absolute magnitude. Formul 4. Brief summary: The probability of roughly 68% that is provided by the standard uncertainty is often too low for the users of measurement uncertainty. Therefore measurement uncertainty is presented to customers mostly as expanded uncertainty, U. Expanded uncertainty is calculated from the standard uncertainty by multiplying it with a coverage factor, k.In the case of the pipetting example the k. 5. relative standard uncertainty due to temperature effects - w(X) relative standard uncertainty of mean deflection - W relative expanded uncertainty - W CMC relative expanded uncertainty of force generated by force calibration machine, equivalent to CMC (calibration and measurement capability) - ### EXAMPLE EXERCISE 2.1 Uncertainty in Measuremen 1. ed (without reference to a theoretical or true value), and the reproducibility or. 2. Note that if the estimated absolute uncertainty is 0.5 lbs, and the corresponding estimate relative uncertainty 0.5/168 = 0.3%, we can say that my weight is known to a precision of 0.5 lbs, or to a precision of 0.3%. Carrying Significant Figures Through Arithmetic. Multiplication and Division. 3. uncertainty, and it informs the reader of the precision of the value 5' 6. What is uncertainty? Whenever you measure something, there is always some uncertainty. There are two categories of un-certainty: systematic and random. (1) Systematic uncertainties are those which consistently cause the value to be too large or too small 4. Relative Uncertainty. An Introduction. June 17, 2018 June 17, 2018 r3lativeuncertainty Leave a comment. Hello, and welcome to my blog! My name is Abby. I'm 16 years old, and I'm on the verge of entering 11th grade. I live in Canada and I speak English, French, and Hebrew (although I am admittedly less proficient in Hebrew than I was when I. 5. uncertainty of §0:1 cm or smaller some way of judging the relative worth of a measurement, and this is done by ﬂnding the percentage uncertainty of a measurement. We will refer to the percentage uncertainty of a measurement as the ratio between the measurement's uncertainty and its measured valu ### Absolute Uncertainty v Relative Uncertainty - which to use The reported uncertainty is an expanded uncertainty calculated using a coverage factor of 2 which gives a level of confidence of approximately 95 % . Factors Affecting Uncertainty When calculating uncertainty for laboratory assays it is important that we consider bias Uncertainty in mass: Dmkg=±01. or 01 12 4 100 0 80645 1.. %. % % kg kg ¥= ª Uncertainty in volume: DVm=±001. 3 or 001 668 100 0 1497006 0 1 3 3.. %. % .% m m ¥= ª Uncertainty in density is the sum of the uncertainty percentage of mass and volume, but the volume is one-tenth that of the mass, so we just keep the resultant uncertainty at 1% When discussing the relative uncertainty versus sample mass, weighing uncertainty is governed by repeatability if a small sample is weighed. Consequently, with the majority of weighings, repeatability is the most important contributor to uncertainty. This would be a good reason to recommend repeatability be tested most frequently ### 4.3: Propagation of Uncertainty - Chemistry LibreText Obtaining Uncertainty Measures on Slope and Intercept of a Least Squares Fit with Excel's LINEST Faith A. Morrison Professor of Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 39931 25 September 201 Relative Uncertainty or percent uncertainty, on the hand is dimensionless and is obtained by dividing the absolute uncertainty by the numerical or measured value. The quotient is usually expressed as percentage by multiplying it by 100. The relative uncertainty in the resistance of the same wire is: ×100= 0.2 % Thus, the same resistance may be. Multi-agent Kalman Consensus with Relative Uncertainty Wei Ren, Randal W. Beard, Derek B. Kingston Abstract—In this paper, we propose discrete-time and continuous-time consensus update schemes motivated by the discrete-time and continuous-time Kalman ﬁlters. With cer-tainty information encoded into each agent, the propose    ### Measurement error and uncertaint the absolute uncertainty. The idea is that a measurement with a relatively large fractional uncertainty is not as meaningful as a measurement with a relatively small fractional uncertainty. Deﬁnition of Fractional Uncertainty The fractional uncertainty is just the ratio of the absolute uncertainty, δx to the best value x best: Fractional. 2.3 Using the manufacturer's specs to find uncertainty 2.4 Using significant figure notation to describe uncertainty 2.5 Uncertainty caused by random erro Suppose you have two numbers with an associated uncertainty for each. $A = a \pm \sigma_a$ $B = b \pm \sigma_b$ If you add $A+B$, you. Measurement Uncertainty . easy to evaluate (see Sections 19.3.5 and 19.5.2). However, the counting uncertainty is only one component of the total measurement uncertainty. Over the years it has been recommended repeatedly that laboratories perform good evaluations of the total uncertainty of each measure-ment The purpose of this work is to prove that only by applying a theoretically sound information approach to developing a model for measuring the Boltzmann constant, one can justify and calculate the value of the required relative uncertainty. A dimensionless parameter (comparative uncertainty) was proposed as a universal metric for comparing experimental measurements of Boltzmann constant and. ### Uncertainty Dictionary - batesville But in my view uncertainty interval won't do either. There are so many different intervals that might be calculated to express uncertainty that giving just one that name is as likely to be confusing as any other proposal. I think we're stuck with explaining that confidence interval is the standard term, even though it's a silly choice of words Length and Volume What is the relative uncertainty in the following: a) 3.26+.25m . b) The volume of a sphere with a radius r=2.86 +/- 0.08 m . a) relative uncertainty: 0.25/3.26 = 0.077 = 7.7 The relative uncertainty theory is closely tied to a widely investigated prob-lem, namely principal subspace analysis. Subspace analysis methods play an important role in high-dimensional data handling, such as in computer vision research, for instance. In visual modeling and recognition, the principal sub The relative uncertainty in V is 3 times the relative uncertainty in s = 3(0.5%) =1.5%. The volume of the cube is, therefore: Calculating with Roots: Suppose that , and that x has a value of 100 with a relative uncertainty of 2% (and some units). What will be the uncertainty in p? Well, the power rule applies here - the square root is.      Uncertainty or measurement uncertainty = non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the quantity values being attributed to a measurand, based on the information used- make more meaningful; First Let me present each term in a simple way that I understand (I hope for you too) Accurac Quora User has given a good answer, and I'll add more information. I'm going use the definitions in the International Vocabulary of Metrology or VIM (JCGM 200:2008) which is published by the International Bureau of Weights and Measure (BIPM). Er.. Uncertainty Calculations - Multiplication Wilfrid Laurier University Terry Sturtevant Wilfrid Laurier University May 9, 2013 Terry Sturtevant Uncertainty Calculations - Multiplication Wilfrid Laurier University. 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